Before talking about health benefits of Tulsi, let’s introduce you to Tulsi or Holy Basil.

One of the most revered herbs in India which has been used for thousands of years as one of the most prominent Ayurvedic medicines.

Ayurveda mentions the healing power and medicinal properties of Tulsi to cure and prevent a number of health conditions related to body, mind and spirit.1

Considered one of the most powerful Ayurvedic herbs, Tulsi with vast array of health benefits in addressing physical, chemical, metabolic, and psychological stress is one of the most widely used and respected herbs in Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.02

Also known as  “Queen of Herbs” in Ayurveda, the vast array of health benefits of Tulsi include:

  1. Improves mood, reduces stress and anxiety
  2. Protects against infection
  3. Boosts immunity naturally
  4. Lowers blood sugar level (diabetes)
  5. Lowers cholesterol
  6. Ease inflammation & joint pain2
  7. Regulates blood pressure
  8. Useful in kidney stone
  9. Good for skin and hair
  10. Useful in gastrointestinal disorders3
  11. Helps manage type 2 diabetes

In this blog, let’s explore many health benefits of Tulsi and how it contributes to your holistic health and overall well-being.

What Is Tulsi (Holy Basil)?

Ocimum Sanctun Lin or Tulsi is a sacred herb in India and is widely cultivated for its medicinal properties, In fact, one can find Tulsi plant in every other home in India, especially Hindus as it is cultivated and worshipped in temples and homes across India.

Holy basil belongs to the Lamiaceae family (commonly known as mint family). You can identify Tulsi by its strong aroma with a hint of peppermint. 

In Ayurveda, Tulsi or the Holy Basil leaf is considered to be predominantly Kapha-reducing. However, it can also be used to pacify Vata and Pitta.

Also Read: How to Identify your Dominant Dosha

It acts as an adaptogen, a herb that has a unique ability to help your body adapt to stress, both physical and mental.

As a powerful adaptogen, Tulsi (Holy Basil) has been proven through various studies and scientific researches for its ability to support the body’s natural ability to cope with stress as well as an array of health benefits.4

As per numerous scientific studies, Tulsi (Holy Basil) contains many nutrients other biological active compounds like eugenol (essential oils) and ursolic acid with medicinal effects.5 Listed below are some of the medicinal properties of Tulsi.

  • Antimicrobial
  • Adaptogenic
  • Antidiabetic,
  • Hepato-protective
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-carcinogenic
  • Radioprotective
  • Immunomodulatory
  • Neuro-protective
  • Cardio-protective
  • Vitalizer & stamina booster

Above mentioned medicinal aspects are just a few which has been found in various studies.6 In more scientific researches to study the medicinal properties of Tulsi (Holy Basil), these compounds were found to interact with various physiological systems, including the endocrine, immune, and nervous systems, to help restore balance and improve resilience to stress.7

What are the Nutrients Present in Tulsi (Holy Basil)

Packed with essential vitamins and minerals, Tulsi is considered to be a nutritional powerhouse. Nutrients like vitamins A and C, calcium, zinc, iron, and chlorophyll present in Tulsi leaves support the natural defenses of your body and contribute significantly to your overall well being.

Tulsi (Holy Basil) is a herb that contains a variety of essential vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that contribute to its overall nutritional value. While the exact nutrient content may vary depending on factors such as the variety of Tulsi and growing conditions, here are some key nutrients commonly found in Tulsi:

  1. Vitamins: Tulsi is a good source of several vitamins, including vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K, and vitamin B-complex vitamins such as folate, riboflavin, and pyridoxine (vitamin B6). These vitamins play essential roles in supporting various bodily functions, including immune function, energy production, and maintaining healthy skin and vision.
  2. Minerals: Tulsi contains minerals such as calcium, zinc, magnesium, potassium, and iron. These minerals are important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, supporting nerve function, regulating blood pressure, and aiding in oxygen transport and red blood cell production.
  3. Antioxidants: Tulsi is rich in antioxidants like flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Antioxidants help protect your cells against damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals are molecules produced when your body breaks down food or when you smoke, drink or are exposed to radiation. By neutralizing free radicals, antioxidants in Tulsi help promote overall health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases like cancer.1
  4. Essential Oils: Tulsi contains essential oils like eugenol, and linalool.5 Essential oils are basically plant extracts with medicinal properties. The potential health benefits of eugenol, and linalool present in Tulsi leaves include  antimicrobial, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects as well as calming and relaxing effects on physical and mental stress.
  5. Chlorophyll: Tulsi leaves contain chlorophyll, the pigment responsible for the green color of plants. Chlorophyll is believed to have detoxifying and cleansing properties, supporting liver function and aiding in the elimination of toxins from the body.

How does Tulsi offer Protection and Detoxification

Tulsi (Holy Basil) offers protection and supports detoxification in the body through various mechanisms. Here are some key benefits of Tulsi and how it provides protection and helps in detoxification of your body:

  • Liver Support: Tulsi supports liver function, which is essential for detoxification. It helps in the elimination of toxins and supports the liver’s ability to metabolize and clear harmful substances from the body. Certain components of Tulsi have shown strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties which helps protect against free radicals, reduces bile formation in the liver and lowers cortisol levels.8
  • Anti-Inflammatory Effects: Intake of Tulsi may reduce inflammation in your body. Although inflammation is the natural response of your body to protect you from infections and outside invaders like bacteria, chronic inflammation can contribute to certain serious diseases which include cancer, diabetes, heart diseases and arthritis.9
  • Gut Health Support: Tulsi supports digestive health, aiding in proper nutrient absorption and elimination of waste products. It can help maintain a healthy balance of gut bacteria and promote optimal gut function, which contributes to overall detoxification processes.
  • Heavy Metal Detoxification: Tulsi has been found to have chelating properties, which means it can bind to heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium, and aid in their removal from the body. This detoxification effect can be beneficial for individuals who may have been exposed to heavy metals through environmental factors or certain occupations.
  • Detoxification of Chemicals: Tulsi has shown protective effects against toxic chemicals, including pesticides, industrial pollutants, and certain environmental toxins. It helps reduce the toxic burden on the body by supporting the detoxification pathways and enhancing the elimination of these harmful chemicals.
  • Radioprotective Effects: Tulsi has been studied for its radioprotective properties, which means it can help protect against radiation-induced damage. It helps mitigate the harmful effects of radiation exposure by reducing oxidative stress and promoting cellular repair mechanisms.10

How Does Tulsi (Holy Basil) Helps Alleviate Physical Stress

Tulsi (Holy Basil) can help alleviate physical stress through its adaptogenic2 and revitalizing properties. Here’s how Tulsi aids in addressing physical stress:

  • Adaptogenic Effects: Tulsi acts as an adaptogen, which means it helps the body adapt and respond to physical stressors. It supports the body’s natural stress response system, including the adrenal glands, and helps restore balance.1
  • Energy Boost: Tulsi can provide a natural energy boost, helping to combat fatigue and improve overall energy levels. It supports healthy metabolism and cellular energy production, allowing the body to better cope with physical stressors.5
  • Anti-Inflammatory Properties: Tulsi possesses anti-inflammatory effects, which can help reduce inflammation and discomfort associated with physical stress, such as muscle soreness or joint stiffness. By mitigating inflammation, Tulsi promotes faster recovery and supports overall physical well-being.11
  • Antioxidant Support: The antioxidant compounds found in Tulsi, such as eugenol and rosmarinic acid, help protect against oxidative stress caused by physical exertion. Oxidative stress can lead to muscle damage and fatigue, and Tulsi’s antioxidants help minimize such damage and support muscle recovery.
  • Respiratory Support: Tulsi has been traditionally used to alleviate respiratory conditions and improve lung function. It can help ease breathing difficulties caused by physical stress or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, making it beneficial for athletes or individuals engaging in physical activities.
  • Hormonal Balance: Tulsi supports hormonal balance, including the regulation of cortisol, a stress hormone. By helping maintain optimal hormone levels, Tulsi can reduce the negative impact of physical stress on the body, promoting a sense of well-being.
  • Muscle Relaxation: Tulsi has muscle relaxant properties, which can help relieve muscle tension and promote relaxation. This can be particularly beneficial for individuals experiencing physical stress-related muscle tightness or spasms.

How Does Tulsi (Holy Basil) Helps Alleviate Metabolic Stress

Tulsi (Holy Basil) can help alleviate metabolic stress through its various pharmacological actions and beneficial compounds. Here’s how Tulsi aids in addressing metabolic stress:

  1. Blood Sugar Regulation: Tulsi has been shown to help regulate blood sugar levels, making it beneficial for individuals with metabolic stress related to insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. It may help improve insulin sensitivity, promote glucose uptake by cells, and regulate carbohydrate metabolism.12
  2. Lipid Profile Improvement: Tulsi has been found to have lipid-lowering effects, including reducing total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (often referred to as “bad” cholesterol), and triglyceride levels. By improving lipid profile, Tulsi supports cardiovascular health and reduces metabolic stress associated with dyslipidemia (an abnormal amount of lipids e.g. triglycerides, cholesterol and/or fat phospholipids in the blood).13
  3. Anti-Obesity Effects: Several studies have found that Tulsi has anti-obesity properties which helps in regulating lipid metabolism, increasing thermogenesis (the process of burning calories for heat production), and reducing fat accumulation.15
  4. Metabolic Boost: Tulsi can help boost metabolism, supporting efficient energy utilization and aiding in weight management.

Benefits of Tulsi (Holy Basil) against Infections

Tulsi (Holy Basil) possesses antimicrobial, antiviral, and immunomodulatory properties, which contribute to its ability to provide protection against various infections. Here are some ways in which Tulsi aids in protecting against infections:

  • Antimicrobial Activity: Tulsi exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria, including pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. It can help inhibit the growth and spread of harmful bacteria, reducing the risk of bacterial infections.11
  • Antiviral Effects: Tulsi has antiviral properties and can help inhibit the replication of certain viruses. It has been found effective against viruses such as influenza, herpes simplex virus, and dengue virus. Tulsi’s antiviral effects contribute to its ability to protect against viral infections.
  • Immunomodulatory Effects: Tulsi acts as an immunomodulator, meaning it helps regulate and strengthen the immune system.16 It can enhance immune function, including the activity of immune cells such as natural killer cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages. A robust immune system is crucial for defending against infections.14
  • Respiratory Support: Tulsi has been traditionally used to support respiratory health. It can help alleviate respiratory infections, such as colds, coughs, and bronchitis, by providing expectorant and bronchodilator effects. Tulsi’s antimicrobial and immune-boosting properties contribute to its respiratory benefits.
  • Antifungal Effects: Tulsi exhibits antifungal activity against various fungal strains, including Candida species. It can help inhibit the growth and spread of fungi, reducing the risk of fungal infections, particularly in conditions such as candidiasis.17
  • Wound Healing: Topical application of Tulsi extracts or oil can promote wound healing and provide protection against wound infections. Its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties aid in preventing infections and supporting the healing process.18
  • Oral Health Support: Tulsi’s antimicrobial properties extend to oral health. It can help inhibit the growth of oral bacteria, reducing the risk of dental plaque, gum infections, and bad breath. Tulsi-based mouthwashes or oral rinses can provide additional protection against oral infections.
  • Gastrointestinal Protection: Tulsi has been traditionally used to support gastrointestinal health and aid in the prevention of gastrointestinal infections. Its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects can help protect against pathogens and reduce inflammation in the digestive system.

Benefits of Tulsi for Mental Health

Tulsi (Holy Basil) is known for its ability to alleviate mental stress and promote emotional well-being. Here are the properties of Tulsi that help in addressing mental stress and an explanation of how they work:

  • Adaptogenic Effects: Tulsi acts as an adaptogen, helping the body adapt to and cope with various stressors, including mental stress.4 It supports the body’s stress response system and helps restore balance, reducing the negative impact of stress on mental health.
  • Anxiolytic Properties: Tulsi has anxiolytic or anti-anxiety effects, helping to reduce feelings of anxiety and promote a sense of calmness.19 It interacts with neurotransmitters and receptors in the brain, such as GABA receptors, which are involved in regulating anxiety and stress.
  • Antidepressant Effects: Tulsi exhibits antidepressant properties, aiding in the management of depressive symptoms and mood disorders.1 It helps modulate neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine, which play crucial roles in mood regulation.20
  • Cognitive Enhancement: Tulsi has been found to improve cognitive function, including memory, attention, and focus. It helps enhance mental clarity and reduces mental fatigue, making it beneficial for individuals experiencing stress-related cognitive difficulties.
  • Anti-Inflammatory Effects: Chronic inflammation can contribute to mental stress and mood disorders. Tulsi’s anti-inflammatory properties11 help reduce inflammation in the body, including the brain, supporting mental health and reducing the risk of stress-related disorders.
  • Antioxidant Activity: The antioxidants present in Tulsi, such as eugenol and rosmarinic acid, help protect against oxidative stress, which can negatively impact mental health.21 By neutralizing free radicals and reducing oxidative damage, Tulsi supports optimal brain function and mental well-being.
  • Sleep Aid: Adequate sleep is essential for managing mental stress. Tulsi possesses calming and relaxing properties which stimulate sleeping pattern, promoting better sleep quality.

Health Benefits of Tulsi (Holy Basil) for Skin

Tulsi (Holy Basil) offers several potential benefits for the skin due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and detoxifying properties. Listed below are some of the health benefits of Tulsi for the skin:

  • Acne Prevention and Treatment: Tulsi has antimicrobial properties that can help combat acne-causing bacteria on the skin especially in the face of adolescents owing to its anti-inflammatory properties.11 It helps reduce inflammation, soothes irritated skin, and promotes healing of red pimples on the skin.
  • Skin Cleansing and Detoxification: Tulsi acts as a natural cleanser and detoxifier for the skin. It helps remove impurities, excess oil, and dirt from the pores, leaving the skin clean and refreshed. Incorporating Tulsi in your skincare routine can help maintain clear and healthy-looking skin.
  • Anti-Aging Effects: The antioxidant properties of Tulsi help combat free radicals that damage our cells (or the oxidative stress), which contribute to premature aging of the skin. Regular use of Tulsi-infused skincare products or topical application of Tulsi extracts can help reduce the appearance of wrinkles, fine lines, and age spots, promoting a more youthful complexion.
  • Skin Radiance and Glow: Tulsi improves blood circulation and promotes oxygen supply to the skin cells, resulting in a natural glow and radiance. It helps rejuvenate dull and tired-looking skin, giving it a healthier and more vibrant appearance.
  • Soothing Skin Irritations: Tulsi has anti-inflammatory and soothing properties that can provide relief from skin irritations, including itching, redness, and rashes. Applying Tulsi paste or using Tulsi-infused creams or lotions can help calm and soothe the skin.
  • Skin Brightening and Complexion Improvement: Tulsi contains natural skin-brightening properties that can help even out skin tone and improve complexion. It may reduce the appearance of dark spots, blemishes, and hyperpigmentation, resulting in a more uniform and radiant skin tone.
  • Skin Protection: The combination of antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties in Tulsi helps protect the skin against environmental damage, UV radiation, and pollution. It strengthens the skin’s natural barrier, reducing the risk of skin infections and damage caused by external factors.

Health Benefits of Tulsi (Holy Basil) for Type 2 Diabetes

Tulsi (Holy Basil) has been traditionally used to manage diabetes in Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years. While scientific research on pharmacological effects of Tulsi on diabetes is still limited, studies have suggested that Tulsi may offer certain health benefits for persons suffering with type 2 diabetes.23 Listed below are potential health benefits of Tulsi for diabetic person:

  • Blood Sugar Control: According to some scientific research, it has been found that certain components of Tulsi can reduce fasting and postprandial (after-meal) blood glucose levels. It has also been observed that taking Tulsi may also help improve secretion of insulin, increase the body’s sensitivity to insulin, and stimulate glucose uptake by the cells, thus providing better blood sugar control.22
  • Lipid Profile Improvement: Diabetes is often associated with abnormalities in lipid metabolism, such as elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels.12 Some studies suggest that Tulsi may help improve lipid profiles by reducing total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, while increasing HDL cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol).
  • Antioxidant Effects: Certain components present in Tulsi are known to possess antioxidant properties. These properties can help protect pancreatic beta cells from the ill effects of the free radicals. These cells are responsible for producing and releasing insulin. By reducing oxidative stress, Tulsi may help preserve beta cell function and support healthy functioning of the pancreas gland.
  • Anti-inflammatory Effects: As mentioned above, long lasting or acute inflammation could lead to the development and progression of several chronic diseases including diabetes. Certain components present in Tulsi extracts have evidently shown anti-inflammatory properties.11 By reducing inflammation in your body, Tulsi could potentially improve insulin sensitivity and metabolic health.

Potential Risks & Side Effects of Tulsi (Holy Basil)

While Tulsi (Holy Basil) is generally considered safe for most individuals when consumed in moderate amounts, there are a few potential risks and side effects to be aware of:

  • Allergic Reactions: Some individuals may experience allergic reactions to Tulsi, especially if they are allergic to plants in the Lamiaceae family, which includes mint, basil, and sage. Allergic symptoms may include skin rash, itching, swelling, or difficulty breathing. If you have known allergies to these plants, it’s advisable to exercise caution when consuming Tulsi.
  • Blood Thinning: Tulsi has mild blood-thinning properties. If you have a bleeding disorder and take some medicine, it may potentially interact with these medications and increase the risk of bleeding.
  • Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: It’s advisable for pregnant or breastfeeding women to consult with an ayurvedic practitioner before using Tulsi as a precaution.
  • Drug Interactions: Tulsi may interact with certain medications, including anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs, and drugs metabolized by the liver’s cytochrome P450 enzymes.
  • Hypoglycemia: Tulsi may lower blood sugar levels, so individuals with diabetes or hypoglycemia should monitor their blood sugar levels closely when using Tulsi.
  • Low Blood Pressure: Tulsi may lower blood pressure, so individuals with hypotension or those taking medications to lower blood pressure should exercise caution when using Tulsi.

How to Take Tulsi (Holy Basil)

Tulsi can be consumed in various forms to enjoy its health benefits. Tulsi (Holy Basil) can be consumed in various forms, allowing you to choose the method that best suits your preferences and needs. Here are a few common ways to take Tulsi:

  1. Tulsi Tea: Tulsi tea is a popular and convenient way to enjoy the benefits of Tulsi. You can purchase pre-packaged Tulsi tea bags or use fresh or dried Tulsi leaves to make your own tea. Simply steep the leaves in hot water for about 5-10 minutes, strain, and enjoy. You can add a squeeze of lemon or honey to enhance the flavor if desired.
  2. Fresh Tulsi Leaves: You can consume fresh Tulsi leaves directly by chewing them or adding them to salads, soups, or sandwiches. Fresh Tulsi leaves have a distinct aroma and taste that can add a refreshing element to your dishes.
  3. Tulsi Extracts and Tinctures: Tulsi extracts and tinctures are concentrated forms of Tulsi that are available in liquid form. They can be added to water, juice, or herbal teas for consumption. Follow the instructions provided on the product packaging for the recommended dosage.
  4. Tulsi Capsules or Tablets: If you prefer a more convenient option, Tulsi is available in the form of capsules or tablets. These standardized formulations provide a consistent dosage of Tulsi. Follow the instructions provided on the product packaging for the recommended dosage.
  5. Tulsi Powder: Tulsi powder can be used in cooking or added to smoothies, juices, or herbal drinks. It is made by drying and grinding Tulsi leaves. You can find Tulsi powder in health food stores or online. Start with a small amount and adjust the quantity according to your taste preferences.

Who Shouldn’t Take Tulsi

While Tulsi (Holy Basil) is generally safe for most individuals when consumed in moderate amounts, there are certain groups of people who should exercise caution or avoid taking Tulsi. Here are some considerations:

  • If you are pregnant or breastfeeding
  • If you are to undergo surgery
  • If you have low blood pressure
  • If you are a diabetic with hypoglycemia
  • Children should also avoid

References and Citations

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4. Pattanayak P, Behera P, Das D, Panda SK. Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: An overview. Pharmacogn Rev. 2010 Jan;4(7):95-105. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.65323. PMID: 22228948; PMCID: PMC3249909.
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9. Kamyab AA, Eshraghian A. Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2013 Dec;12(6):378-84. doi: 10.2174/1871528112666131125110017. PMID: 24266685.

10. Subramanian M, Chintalwar GJ, Chattopadhyay S. Antioxidant and radioprotective properties of an Ocimum sanctum polysaccharide. Redox Rep. 2005;10(5):257-64. doi: 10.1179/135100005X70206. PMID: 16354414.
11. Chaiyana W, Punyoyai C, Sriyab S, Prommaban A, Sirilun S, Maitip J, Chantawannakul P, Neimkhum W, Anuchapreeda S. Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Activities of Fermented Ocimum sanctum Linn. Extracts against Skin and Scalp Microorganisms. Chem Biodivers. 2022 Feb;19(2):e202100799. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.202100799. Epub 2022 Jan 13. PMID: 34935261.
12. Rai V, Iyer U, Mani UV. Effect of Tulasi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf powder supplementation on blood sugar levels, serum lipids and tissue lipids in diabetic rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1997;50(1):9-16. doi: 10.1007/BF02436038. PMID: 9198110.
13. Dahiya K, Sethi J, Dhankhar R, Singh V, Singh SB, Yadav M, Sood S, Sachdeva A. Effect of Ocimum sanctum on homocysteine levels and lipid profile in healthy rabbits. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2011 Feb;117(1):8-11. doi: 10.3109/13813455.2010.496855. Epub 2010 Jul 7. PMID: 20608759.
14. Mondal S, Varma S, Bamola VD, Naik SN, Mirdha BR, Padhi MM, Mehta N, Mahapatra SC. Double-blinded randomized controlled trial for immunomodulatory effects of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) leaf extract on healthy volunteers. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jul 14;136(3):452-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.05.012. Epub 2011 May 17. PMID: 21619917.
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16. Prasad, M. Venu. “Antifatigue and Neuroprotective Properties of Selected Species of Ocimum L.” University of Mysore, Mysore, India (2014).
17. Balakumar S, Rajan S, Thirunalasundari T, Jeeva S. Antifungal activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Lamiaceae) on clinically isolated dermatophytic fungi. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011 Aug;4(8):654-7. doi: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)60166-1. PMID: 21914546.
18. Goel A, Kumar S, Singh DK, Bhatia AK. Wound healing potential of Ocimum sanctum Linn. with induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010 Apr;48(4):402-6. PMID: 20726339.
19. Bathala LR, Rao ChV, Manjunath S, Vinuta S, Vemulapalli R. Efficacy of Ocimum sanctum for relieving stress: a preclinical study. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2012 Nov 1;13(6):782-6. doi: 10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1229. PMID: 23404003.
20. Ravindran R, Rathinasamy SD, Samson J, Senthilvelan M. Noise-stress-induced brain neurotransmitter changes and the effect of Ocimum sanctum (Linn) treatment in albino rats. J Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Aug;98(4):354-60. doi: 10.1254/jphs.fp0050127. PMID: 16113498.
21. Chaudhary A, Sharma S, Mittal A, Gupta S, Dua A. Phytochemical and antioxidant profiling of Ocimum sanctum. J Food Sci Technol. 2020 Oct;57(10):3852-3863. doi: 10.1007/s13197-020-04417-2. Epub 2020 Apr 11. PMID: 32903995; PMCID: PMC7447722.
22. Agrawal P, Rai V, Singh RB. Randomized placebo-controlled, single blind trial of holy basil leaves in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Sep;34(9):406-9. PMID: 8880292.
23. Somasundaram, G., et al. “Evaluation of the antidiabetic effect of Ocimum sanctum in type 2 diabetic patients.” International journal of life science and pharma research 5 (2012): 75-81.